What to do in Vegas

Las Vegas is one of the most beautiful and really very popular states of United States. A lot of people have been planning their trips to Las Vegas either alone or with their friends and families, so that they can explore the beauty of this amazing state as well as enjoy countless amazing activities there. Las Vegas is basically an international major resort city that is well known all over the world for gambling fine dining, shopping, as well as nightlife. This is why a lot of people from different places of the world have been planning their tours to Las Vegas. The top 10 things to do in Las Vegas, United States are:

Neon Bonyard:

Las Vegas is so much popular all over the world for the best casino activities. The old casino never dies in Las Vegas and the Neon Boneyard is actually a sign of casino. It is one of the best and the most popular places in Las Vegas and it best for the people who love to play casino.

Bellagio Fountains:

It is one of those attractions of Las Vegas that is worth watching. People visiting Las Vegas must not forget enjoy watching the Bellagio Fountains. It is a beautiful 8.5 acre lake in the middle of the desert that explodes with about 1214 spritzers that shoots water up to 460 feet in the air.

Cirque du Soleil:

This is one of the best places for entertainment in Las Vegas in which the gymnastics are hired for catapulting themselves all over the stage for the amusement of the guests. Though, this place is a bit expensive, but it always best for keeping people away from boredom in the evenings.

Designer Dinner:

This is the best place for the foodie people in Las Vegas. In this restaurant every kind of delicious food is available and it is always served at its best. This is why it is considered as one of the best places to visit in Las Vegas.

Shark Reef Aquarium:

This is one of the best places in Las Vegas, especially for the children. There are available the sharks of every kind and a lot of people from different places of the world have been visiting Shark Reef Aquarium on their visit to Las Vegas.

New York Roller Coaster:

There are a lot of people who have been making plans for visiting Las Vegas for the sake of adventures and entertainment. The New York Roller Coaster is so much popular all over the world and countless people from different places of the world have been visiting Las Vegas for experiencing the adventure of this biggest Roller Coaster of the world.


The Spa:

Countless people have been experiencing the Spa on their visit to Las Vegas, United States and a lot of people have been giving positive reviews about this best spa of Las Vegas. They have been providing the best facilities for their customers. This is the reason it is so much popular all over the world.


It is another of those amazing places of Las Vegas that is popular all over the world and has been attracting a lot of people from different places of the world to plan their visit to Las Vegas, especially the casino lovers.

Liberace Museum:

It is the most beautiful museum situated in Las Vegas that is popular all over the world. People should visit this museum on their visit to Las Vegas for exploring the beauty of this state.

Gun Store:

A lot of people have been visiting the Gun Store on their visit to Las Vegas, United States as it is considered one of the most famous places of Las Vegas all over the world.


The top 10 things to do in Berlin, Germany

Contributed by Kevin from the international removals company, plymouthvanman.co.uk

Berlin is one of the most beautiful city as well as the capital of Germany. Every year, a lot of people plan their visit to Germany, so that they can visit Berlin and explore the beauty of this most beautiful state of Germany. Berlin is famous all over the world as one of the 16 states of Germany. This is why a lot of people are attracted towards Germany and plan their visit as well. The top 10 things to do in Berlin, Germany are:


It is one of the best and the most beautiful building of Berlin in Germany that is popular all over the world. Countless people from different places of the world have been planning their trips to Berlin, Germany, so that they can explore the beauty of the amazing Reichstag building. The military zone between the two sides of the wall of this building gives such a beautiful view that attracts a lot of people to visit Berlin.

Berlin Television Tower:

The television tower of Berlin is also known as Fernsehturm to the locals and this amazing attraction of Berlin stands out of the skyline at 368m that makes it the tallest building of Berlin, Germany. This is one of the reasons why a lot of people like to visit the Berlin Television Tower on their visit to Berlin, Germany.

Unter den Linden:

The Linden was known as the most glamorous boulevard of Berlin back in the 19th century that was actually more than perfect for strolling and promenading. These days, this boulevard known as Unter den Linden is as charming as before and is known as the attraction of Berlin, Germany.


The Gendarmenmarkt is one of the most amazing squares of this amazing city of Germany that is located close to the Friedrichstraße. It is one of the most stunning shopping streets in Berlin that is popular all over the world. This is why countless people like to visit Gendarmenmarkt on their visit to Berlin, Germany.

Museum Island:

When it comes to planning for the Berlin tour, then one of the best places to visit in Berlin is the Museum Island. This amazing place is famous all over the world and a lot of people including the tourists as well have been visiting this amazing attraction of Berlin, Germany on their tours to Berlin. 

Berlin Wall Memorial and Documentation Centre:

This amazing attraction of Berlin is located between the Wedding and Mitte on the Bernauer Straße that consists of the Memorial to the Victims of the wall, a Documentation Centre as well as the chapel of reconciliation. It is another amazing attraction of Berlin, Germany that must be visited.

Potsdamer Platz:

This is one of the most amazing attractions of Berlin, Germany from always. Before the Second World War, the Potsdamer Platz was known as the only attraction of Berlin that was frequently visited by countless people. Still, a lot of people like to visit this place on their tour to Germany.

Brandenburg Gate:

The Brandenburg Gate is popular all over the world and it is actually a signature attraction of Berlin. This is why countless people like to visit this place on their visit to Berlin, Germany.

Charlottenburg Palace:

This most beautiful palace is located just outside the center of the city of Berlin. It was established in 1700 and still it is as beautiful as before. People visiting Berlin must visit the magnificent Charlottenburg palace.


People visiting Berlin, Germany have been suggested always to visit this most amazing place at least once as it is considered one of the most beautiful attractions of Berlin, Germany.

Popular Cruise Holidays in the UK

Cruise holidays are getting popular by the day. A survey done by T&C suggests that the number of cruise ships have gone up by more than 13% in the last two years. What’s more is that, many people haven’t gone on a cruise holiday before, and it’s their first time. The number is increasing by leaps and bounds in the UK. Here is a list of some popular cruises that are not only fun but also greatly popular among the people in the UK.

#1-Celebrity Cruises

Celebrity sails from Southampton and often offers deals to British citizen. The ship can hold up to 3,000 passengers. Although this one is of American origin, but some features have been added to match the taste of the UK citizens. Typically, it’s a 14-day package and sails mainly to the Mediterranean. This may approximately cost you somewhere in the range of £1,500 to £2,000. Every day is filled with programs for the tourists. There is no chance of getting bored. There are lots of activities for the kids as well.

#2-Cruise and Maritime

This is one of the latest additions in the cruise industry. It is owned by the company which used to sail Marco-polo with 800 passengers. Although the latter still has a few cruises, Cruise and Maritime a new addition from the company. The time line for this package is typically two weeks. The typical cost is somewhere in the range of £800 to £1,000. The ship is topped up with luxury and the company promises that there will not be a single moment of dullness.


This is one of the oldest ships that operate from Southampton to New York. It’s a 12 day voyage and reaches New York on the 13th day. Many people head home through flight. The alternate plan is to immediately head home after spending 2-3 hours in New York. This could be a good idea if you are not sea sick. The typical cost per person would be somewhere in the range of £2,000 to £2,500. You can visit the company’s website for a detailed journey plan, offers and other activities.

#4-Disney Cruise Line

Although this ship does not cruise regularly from Britain, it is a ship worth cruising on. Entertainment is the key theme for this ship and rest assured you will enjoy every moment of your stay while cruising. This is a 12 night trip and costs £1,200 per person. The dress code is typically casual barring few days where you have to put on your dinner jacket and bow.

#5-Fred Olsen Cruise Lines

Fred Olsen has four ships and is extremely popular among the senior citizens. Most British travellers like this cruise for its strong British flavour. The cruise starts from four locations-New Castle, Rosyth, Liverpool and Greenock. The ships give you the option to cruise anywhere around the world. It’s a 13 night journey and the cost involved per person is typically in the range of £700 to £1,200 depending on your cruise location and the kind of lodging you opt for. Getting the ticket directly from the website can fetch you attractive discounts.

#6-Hebridean Island Cruises

Hebridean cruises around the British shore through Scotland and starts its journey from Oban. This is a small ship, which has a capacity to hold around 50 passengers. It is rumoured to be chartered by the Queen herself, and it’s possibly one of the reasons why it’s costlier than the others.

A seven night journey will cost you £2,500 per person. The luxury and the ambience is a class apart. The voyage includes drinks, outings in the shore and other gratuities. This is ideal for honeymooner and vacation lovers. If you’re looking for an ideal romantic getaway, this could be the one!

What to See and Do in Venice, Italy

Venice in Italy is a land of dreams. There is a long list of things that you can do and see in this city. If you ask the Venice tourism department, they will give you a pretty lengthy list. If you are on a short holiday and want to cover the most important spots, this list will help you in your endeavour.

This will further help you avoid paying hefty entry fees to places which are not worth visiting if you want to make the most of your holiday.

Just Roam Around

Before visiting any museums and other major tourist attractions, just aimlessly walking around the city will ensure that you visit the authentic Venetian places. The city is very picturesque! The roads, cafes and shops are amazingly built. The squares are absolutely charming. Don’t worry about getting lost. The people in Venice are one of the friendliest you will ever come across. Ask any pedestrians and they will tell you where to go.

St. Mark’s Basilica

When you are done with you adventure, this should be your next stop. There are loads of churches in the city, but St. Mark’s Basilica is by far the best in the whole country. The architecture of the church will surely amaze you.

What’s more is that, there is no entry fee in this one. You can just book your ticket online and drop in. Inside the church, you will find three small museums, but the entries to these are not free. If you have budget constraints, you may consider visiting any one.

St. Mark’s Square

This is another marvel of the city. Make sure you visit this place no matter what. The sheer structure and its brilliance will fill your heart. It is a good idea to visit St. Mark’s Square when it is empty. Since most of the tourists throng the place during the day, you might as well visit the place during early morning or late night. The peace and silence of this place will take your breath away.

Grand Canal

Although walking around the city is the best way to visit Venice, the Grand Canal tour however, is an amazing route to explore the city. The water buses will give you an amazing view of the city from far off. Take a gelato in your hand, sit back and just enjoy the view. Did we mention that it is also an extremely cheap method of transportation?

Doge’s Palace

This place is situated right next to the St. Mark’s Basilica. Although you have to pay a hefty entry fee, it is definitely worth the money. The best attraction is when you walk over the Bridge of Sigh’s. Although the bridge is visible from outside and no entry fee is required, we suggest that you take a ticket and visit this historic palace. Unlike the St. Mark’s Basilica, you won’t find this place empty. It is thronged by tourists all the time and there is a particular time when the palace opens its gates too.

Campanile Top

The top view from the St. Mark’s Basilica is wonderful, but it won’t give you a great view of the churches. The top of Campanile, however, will give you an amazing view of both the Basilica and the Piazza. This however, is not free and you have to buy a ticket for the short ride of the elevator. What’s more is that, you will get to see the famous big bells of Venice during the ride. If you want to save your ears from the extremely loud noise of the bells clinging, make sure that you take the ride before the hour mark.

6 Benefits of Learning Mandarin

Ever wondered what is the most widely spoken language in the world? Well! It’s not English, nor French or any European language either. Mandarin is the most widely spoken language in the world.

Popularly known as Chinese Mandarin, the language is extremely important when it comes to business. It is estimated that China will overtake the USA in terms of GDP in the next 20 years. If you are wondering what the importance of learning Chinese is, here is a list of benefits that can make all the difference.

#1-Global Economy

China is expected to be the next financial leader in global economy. It has already surpassed many developed countries when it comes to GDP. Almost all the fortune 500 companies has opened base in China. The unique thing however, is that English or any other language for that matter is not so popular among Chinese.

The knowledge of Mandarin will greatly help you to understand the people of China. Not to mention, some of the most successful CEOs in the world hail from China. So, if you want to understand their mind, it is necessary to know Chinese.


China has the biggest manufacturing hub in the world. The top companies of the world have their production base in China. Today, many people aspire to move to China rather than countries such as the USA or certain countries of Europe.

If you want to capitalise the opportunity to work in China, it is important to know the language of this country. The knowledge of English among Chinese people is still meagre. To work and settle down in this country for even a few years, the proficiency in Chinese is extremely necessary.

#3-Knowing the Culture

The Chinese culture is one of the most enriched cultures in the world. Some of the geniuses have been born in this country. If you are curious about the country’s deep heritage and rich culture, the knowledge of Chinese is extremely important. Not to mention, you will also come to know a lot about their religious values as well.

#4-Grow Your Network

This goes without saying that the knowledge of Chinese will greatly help you to grow your network. You will be able to get the attention of the people who are not only successful, but also extremely useful too.

If you are a businessman, it makes all the more sense to you. Chinese people are extremely enterprise centric. So, if you are planning to set up operations in China or looking for cheap vendors, it is extremely necessary that you know their language.

#5-Are You a Political Enthusiast?

China is a digital fortress. Not much information comes out from China. That being said, the Chinese communist party has redefined communism. If you are a political enthusiast, and interested to know the new direction of their Left regime, the knowledge of Chinese will greatly help your endeavour.

Some of the most renowned books on communism have been written in Chinese. Your expertise in the Chinese language will give you access to these books. Unfortunately, the Chinese government does not pay much heed to the English language; as a result, the English versions of some of the great books of political science have still not been published.

#6-Great for a Sports Enthusiast

Well! China is almost snatching the position of being the best in athletics. For the last few Olympics, China has consistently leaded the medals tally in events such as athletics, badminton, and table tennis, among others. Lot of secrets about players and their training are discussed in the Chinese commentary box. If you are a budding sportsman, the Chinese language skills make a lot of sense to you.

12 Interesting Facts about the Spanish language

#1-The Ranking Speaks For Itself

An estimated 450 million people speak Spanish, which makes this language the second most widely spoken language in the world. In comparison, English ranks third with 350 million people. However, the most widely spoken language is Chinese with an estimated 1.2 billion people.

#2-Varied Geography

The count of native speakers lies in the vicinity of 200 million. People across 44 countries speak this language, which makes it the most popular language in terms of geography. In comparison, English is spoken in 112 countries, while French and Arabic rank 60 and 57 respectively.

#3-Origin of the Spanish Language

The Spanish language has Indo-European roots. The language is spoken by close to one third of all population. The other languages that hail from the Indo-European family are English, Slavic, Indian, German and French.

Some experts are of the belief that Spanish has emerged from Romance language. Romance language has given birth to languages such as Portuguese, Catalan, and Romanian among others.

#4-Standardisation of the Language

It was the effort of King Alfonso in the late 13th century that made Spanish popular across the world. The King wanted one language that would be used for official purposes in his kingdom. It is believed that by the time Columbus reached Western hemisphere, Spanish was a popular language in terms of the number of people speaking and writing the language.

#5-Other Names of Spanish

Spanish speaking people sometimes refer to Spanish as Espanol and Castellano. The name varies according to geographies, religion and at times political viewpoint. The variation, however, is not much. That being said, the accent does differ from place to place.

#6-Plain and Simple

The Spanish language is considered to be one of the phonetic languages in the world. If you know the spelling of a word, you can most certainly pronounce it. The reverse, however, may not hold ground. In recent times, with the origination of foreign words in the language, Spanish is becoming a less phonetic language.

#7-The Decision Making Body

The Royal Spanish Academy is considered to be the elite body that has the final verdict on the language. Although, its verdict are not as good as law, but a wide section of the Spanish language speaking community follow the direction of the Royal Spanish Academy.

#8-Influence on Spanish

Latin and Arabic have the biggest influence on Spanish. English has also influenced the language in recent times. Over hundreds of English words have been imbibed in the Spanish language. Globalisation has a large part to play in this.

#9-International Recognition

With a rich history, the Spanish language has been acclaimed and fitted in every world organisation of repute such as the European Union, the United Nations and the World Health Organisation. It serves as the official language for many other international organisations as well.

#10-Popularity of Spanish

The number of people who are eager to learn the language has more than doubled in the last decade. The Spanish language is one of the most popular foreign languages in countries of
Europe and the USA. Brazil recently signed a resolution, which was subsequently formed into a law mandating the teaching of Spanish in every school in the country.

#11- The Achievement of Spanish Language

Although sounds less, but the Spanish language has won 11 Nobel prizes in literature. Some of the world’s most loved novel has been written in this language. What’s more is that, some of the world’s brilliant mathematician, artists and scientists speak Spanish.

#12-Some Firsts

Elio Antonio de Nebrija was the first person who published the first grammar book of the Spanish language. El Canter del Mio Cid was the first literary work in the Spanish language.

6 Reasons to Learn French

French is known to be one of the widely learnt languages in the world. It is one of the few languages that can be learnt anywhere in the world, and you can have access to learning centres closer to home anywhere across the globe!

More than 200 million people speak French across the world in five continents. French is the second most widely learnt language after English. If you are considering learning French and want some motivation to get you to enrol, read on about the best reasons to learn French.

#1-Opens New Doors to Travel

If you are a travel lover and a world traveller, it is always beneficial to learn a new language as it helps you interact with locals and get the best out of your vacation. Especially with France, most French people do not speak English and therefore, you may have many problems in communication in your travel. On the contrary, if you speak good French, you will be surprised at how helpful the locals can be, and how fun-filled your holiday will become with the help of the language. Not just in France, but in many other countries you may find French people who will be more than friendly if you speak their language.

#2-Higher Education

If you are considering higher education on a global level, France has some of the best universities in Europe. A thorough knowledge about their language will open doors for scholarships and help you understand your course much better in France. You can also qualify for internationally recognied post-graduate degrees in France if you know the language. It is easier to make friends and get through your educational years if you have French speaking skills.

#3-For the Love of the Language

French is a wonderful language to learn. It is fun, interactive and unique and makes you stand out from the crowd. You can always add an extra language to your hobbies, your extracurricular activities on your resume, and so much more! French is known as the language of love and it surely is a culturally-rich language to learn and comprehend.


If you like to teach, you can easily become a French teacher after you complete the course. The language offers great opportunities for teachers and gives you a chance to visit the country as well as teach in your own home land.

#5-Job Opportunities

Knowing another language definitely opens many new doors in the job arena. You get a chance to work in the international market, work with some of the best French companies and also travel for work purposes.

France is a key economic partner and it has numerous job opportunities that can be yours if you are fluent with the language. You can also become a great translator if you can speak French and another language easily. This will help you make some extra income, while you continue with your current job.

#6-A Good Base

Learning French not only adds a feather to your hat, it also polishes your English and gives you a good base to learn other Roman languages like Spanish or Italian. The grammar that you will learn in your French course will enhance your mother tongue grammar and polish your skills as a good communicator.

You will also be able to enjoy French literature, movies and TV serials, which are known to be extremely popular in European countries. French is an easy language to learn. Depending on the age and the level that you are aspiring to learn, you can find a lot of study material and become fluent in the language in no time! So why think any more? Get yourself enrolled and start learning this fun language today!



Historically the current preoccupation with strategies has two sources: (i) attempts to define communicative competence (e.g. Canale and Swain, 1980; Canale, 1983) and to explore its operation in second language performance (e.g. Tarone, 1980; Færch and Kasper, 1983); (ii) attempts to define the “good language learner” (e.g. Naiman et al., 1978) and to draw from such definitions precepts for language learning (e.g. Rubin and Thompson, 1994).

The greatest single danger inherent in the current interest in strategies is that it may generate pedagogical techniques as crude in their assumptions as those that are sometimes still employed to teach grammar.

Strategic competence

In Canale and Swain’s definition (1980: 30), strategic competence is called into play “to compensate for breakdowns in communication due to performance variables or to insufficient competence” (cf. Canale, 1983). Two problems arise from this definition: (i) there are many communicative situations in which strategic processes play an “offensive” rather than a “defensive” role; (ii) a definition of strategic competence that concentrates exclusively on language use may encourage the assumption that there is a psychological disjunction at the strategic level between language use and language learning.

This problem is solved by Bachman’s definition of strategic competence as “an important part of all communicative language use, not just that in which language abilities are deficient and must be compensated for by other means” (Bachman, 1990: 100; see also Bachman and Palmer, 1996). In Bachman’s definition strategic competence has three components: assessment, planning and execution (1990: 100ff.), which together comprise “a set of metacognitive processes, or strategies, which can be thought of as higher order executive processes that provide a cognitive management function in language use, as well as in other cognitive activities” (Bachman and Palmer, 1996: 70). Those other cognitive activities include language learning in all its ramifications.

Strategic competence underlies all human behaviour and operates below as well as above the threshold of conscious awareness: at least some strategies can become part of automatic processing. When we research some aspect of second language learners’ strategic competence, we must never forget that we are looking at one small part of an extremely complex and in many respects still mysterious phenomenon.

Strategies in language learning

All learning in formal contexts is an intentional process shaped by explicit plans and strategies; on the other hand, proficiency in a second language is a complex skill that we deploy most successfully when we do so automatically. In other words, the development of proficiency in a second language depends on the automatization of processes that are first mastered by conscious effort – cf. Baars and McGovern’s (1996: 71) example of the proficient pianist.

Schmidt (1994) proposes four senses of “consciousness” in second language learning – intentionality, attention, awareness, control. Consciousness in all these senses is required for the explicit (as opposed to automatic) deployment of strategies in second language learning and second language use. (Note that implicit and incidental processes also play a significant role in second language learning, but they lie by definition outside the intentionality and control of the learner.)

Strategies and learner-centred pedagogies

McDonough (1995: 83) identifies three problems in applying the findings of strategies research to pedagogy:


First, it is not clear that what differentiates good and poor learners is the choice of strategy; it may simply be the range and amount of use of strategies. Second, there are constraints on when a strategy works which are to do with individuals, possibly cultural background, type of problem, and proficiency level. Third, a pedagogic decision of some risk has to be taken to devote teaching time to strategy training rather than language learning, and the pay-off is not secure.

There is a further, altogether larger problem: we cannot account for classroom learning exclusively in terms of the individual psychological processes that have usually been the focus of strategies research; classrooms are communities with cultural characteristics, and teaching is a sociocultural process. Accordingly, Gillette (1994: 211) “questions the belief that positive learning strategies, in and of themselves, constitute the explanation of L2 achievement” (cf. the sociocultural theory that derives from Vygotsky, 1978, 1986).

As noted above, second language learning in formal contexts is an intentional process whose success depends on the gradual automatization of tasks that are first performed with a high degree of conscious intention and control. This has two fundamental implications for second language pedagogy: (i) we must accord a central role to use of the target language, otherwise learners cannot be expected to develop even a limited capacity for automatic processing; (ii) we must adopt an explicitly reflective approach to the conduct of classroom activities, whether their principal focus is language learning or language use.

We hope but cannot guarantee that the strategic awareness learners develop by engaging reflectively in task assessment, planning and execution will somehow link up with and extend the established strategic capacities they bring with them to the classroom. To this end, we should make reflective processes as diverse as possible. Note that in collaborative and project-based learning, learners may extend their own explicit strategic capacity by “borrowing” the consciousness of their peers (cf. the techniques described in Dam, 1995).

Pedagogies concerned to develop autonomy in second language learners necessarily emphasize intentionality and control, the explicit strategic element in language learning and language use (Dam, 1995; Little, 1991, 1996). But if the pursuit of learner autonomy requires that we focus explicitly on the strategic component of language learning and language use, the reverse should also be the case: focus on strategies should lead us to learner autonomy.


It is important not to let strategies research fossilize around discarded models of cognitive operations: we must keep in view the large amount of primary research that is currently going on into the workings of the human brain. Also, future strategies research needs to find ways of taking account equally of the individual cognitive and the collective sociocultural dimensions of classroom language learning.



Baars B J and K McGovern, ‘Cognitive views of consciousness: What are the facts? How can we explain them?’ in M Velmans (ed.), The science of consciousness, 63-95. (London: Routledge, 1996).

Bachman L F, Fundamental considerations in language testing. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990).

Bachman L F and A S Palmer, Language testing in practice. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996).

Canale M, ‘From communicative competence to communicative language pedagogy’ in J C Richards and R W Schmidt (eds), Language and communication, 2-27. (London & New York: Longman, 1983).

Canale M and M Swain, ‘Theoretical bases of communicative approaches to second language teaching and testing’ in Applied Linguistics 1, 1-47 (1980).

Dam L., Learner autonomy 3: From theory to classroom practice (Dublin: Authentik, 1995).

Færch C and G Kasper (eds), Strategies in interlanguage communication (London & New York: Longman, 1983).

Gillette B, ‘The role of learner goals in L2 success’ in J P Lantolf and G Appel (eds), Vygotskian approaches to second language research, 195-213 (1994).

Little D, Learner autonomy 1: Definitions, issues and problems (Dublin: Authentik, 1991).

Little D, ‘Strategic competence considered in relation to strategic control of the language learning process’ in H Holec, D Little and R Richterich, Strategies in language learning and use, 11-37 (Strasbourg: Council of Europe, 1996).

McDonough S H, Strategy and skill in learning a foreign language (London: Arnold, 1995).

Naiman N, M Fröhlich, H H Stern and A. Todesco, The good language learner. Research in Education Series 7 (Toronto, Ontario: Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, 1978)

Rubin J and I. Thompson, How to be a more successful language learner. Second edition. (Boston, Mass.: Heinle & Heinle, 1994).

Schmidt R, ‘Deconstructing consciousness in search of useful definitions for applied linguistics’ in Consciousness in Second Language Learning, AILA Review 11, 11-26 (1994).

Tarone E, ‘Communication strategies, foreigner talk and repair in interlanguage’ in Language Learning 30: 417-31 (1980).

Vygotsky L, Mind in Society (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1978).

Vygotsky L, Thought and language (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1986).

French Resources

Websites for languages


Travel, tourism







  • TF1
    French television channel
  • France 2
    French television channel
  • France 3
    French television channel with regional focus
  • Canal +
    French television channel
  • La Cinquième
    French educational television channel
  • M6
    French television channel
  • TV5
    French television channel
  • Télé 7 Jours
    Extended on-line version of the TV listings magazine


Directories of French Web Sites

French Search Engines


The Internet for language teaching and learning


Languages and the Internet
European networks
Activities for the Web
E-mail in language learning
Finding E-mail partners


Languages and the Internet

  • Web Skills for Language Learning
    A booklet produced by the WELL Project and available online, which provides an introduction to the use of the web for new users, whether they are staff or students.
  • A Language Professional’s Guide to the World Wide Web (USA)
    Starting with Internet basics, this extremely useful article, takes the reader through some Web sites of interest to language professionals, examines copyright constraints on using Web data, discusses how to get set up for Webbing, and explains how to create individual Web documents. By Carolyn G. Fidelman of Northeastern University.
  • Exploiting the Internet for Language Teaching and Learning
    A guide through the Web for language teachers from Ros Potapov. Includes On-line dictionaries and translations; Language Testing on-line, Exploiting realia.
  • Foreign Language Teaching Forum (USA)
    Aimed at teachers, trainee teachers, administrators and other professionals interested in foreign language teachers, this service includes Web pages and a highly active e-mail discussion list.
    Basic Internet Tools for Foreign Language Educators
    Choosing and Using Materials for a ‘Net’ Gain in Foreign Language Learning and Instruction
    Enhancing Authentic Language Learning Experiences Through Internet Technology
    The above articles by Jean W. LeLoup and Robert Ponterio (moderators of FLTEACH) focus on the Internet and use of electronic technologies in foreign language teaching.
  • Language Interactive – Language Learning and the Web (USA)
    A trailguide for language teachers with an interest in the application of technology to language learning. The specific focus is on the World Wide Web, but there will be some incidental discussion of other computer-based applications.
  • Schools On-Line Project
    A joint government / industry project to help schools use the Internet, Schools OnLine is supporting the development of materials in two curriculum areas, Science and Modern Languages
  • Windows on the World
    From the Central Bureau, Windows on the World is a database for schools and colleges seeking partner institutions anywhere in the world in order to develop international education projects.

European networks and initiatives

  • European Schoolnet
    The European Schoolnet intends to promote the use of ICT in education at European schools.
  • European Schools Project
    The European Schools Project supports teachers and pupils in participating in the world of Internet-based Computer Mediated Communications and in using the Internet’s Information Resources to improve learning and teaching.

Language teaching activities for the Web

  • Teaching with the Web (USA)
    Teaching with the Web is a compilation of ideas for using WWW resources as a language teaching tool. It also offers links to sites that have pedagogical information.
  • Internet Activities for Foreign Language Classes (USA)
    The web pages of the California Foreign Language Project offer suggestions for using the web as a resource for authentic documents in foreign language classes. They include ideas for software, hardware, using the web in the one computer classroom, suggestions for writing activities using the web, sample lessons, references to 480 web sites useful for foreign language classes, etc.
  • Language Learning Activities for the World Wide Web (USA)
    Suggested activites include: Cooks Corner, Talking Heads (Culture), Virtual Fashion Show, Burning Issues, My Refrigerator’s Empty, Matching Majors, Hometown Magazine
  • Web-Based Activities for Foreign Languages
    The purpose of this page is to showcase some of the creative ideas others have used to incorporate interactive Web exercises into their language pedagogy.
  • Schools Activities Lancaster University
    An example of how resources can be shared using the WWW


  • Using the World Wide Web to integrate Spanish language and culture
    An article in the on-line journal Language Learning & Technology (Vol. 1, No. 2, January 1998), looking at a pilot study investigating the potential role of Internet resources as a means to gain a deeper sense of the culture of the Spanish-speaking world for college students.

E-mail in language learning

  • Setting up an email link
    Pedagogical considerations, practical implications, advice and suggestions for setting up an e-mail project from Schools OnLine.
  • Keypal Opportunities for Students
    Focusing mainly on teaching and learning English via e-mail this site includes an article about how to prepare classes to use e-mail, details of e-mail and Web projects and useful links for students and teachers looking for e-mail partners.
  • E-Mail-Projekte im Deutsch als Fremdsprache-Unterricht
    E-mail projects in the teaching of German as a Foreign Language.

Finding E-mail Partners

  • Intercultural E-Mail Classroom Connections
    IECC is a free teaching.com service to help teachers link with partners in other cultures and countries for email classroom pen-pal and other project exchanges.
  • International Tandem Network
    In the International Tandem Network, universities and other institutions in many different countries work together to help their students learn languages in tandem (primairly via the Internet).
  • Partner finding
    Including a partnership-finding service for schools throughout Europe and links to other partner finding agencies (from the European Association of Teachers)